Great Lakes' healing mechanisms under attack
TRAVERSE CITY, Michigan: As wetlands disappear and shorelines
are degraded, the Great Lakes are losing their ability
to cope with environmental stress and ward off a catastrophic
breakdown, scientists said last week.
"The immune system of the Great Lakes is weakened
and it needs to be restored to prevent the ecological
collapse of the lakes," said Andy Buchsbaum, director
of the National Wildlife Federation's Great Lakes office.
The warning, in a report signed by about 75 of the region's
aquatic specialists, was delivered as a Bush administration
task force prepared to release its strategy for nursing
the ailing lakes back to health.
Advocates are pressuring the administration for major
new spending on a wide-ranging effort to fix problems
ranging from the exotic species invasion to severely polluted
"hot spots." They are calling for US$20 billion
over 15 years, mostly from the federal government but
also from states and local governments.
But the Environmental Protection Agency has signalled
that the restoration plan might have to rely on existing
federal money and programmes, saying it already expects
to spend US$5 billion over the next 10 years on Great
Lakes water quality projects.
US Representative John Dingell, a Michigan Democrat,
said he urged USEPA Administrator Stephen Johnson this
week to come up with more funding.
"The bottom line is that we have had enough study
and wasted enough time," Dingell said. "We need
to restore and protect this precious resource, and it's
going to take money to do it."
The scientific report issued last Thursday also called
for a comprehensive approach, saying piecemeal efforts
to fix individual problems hadn't done the job.
The report mentioned a familiar litany of problems sewage-fouled
beaches, declining fish populations, fish tainted with
Many of the causes have been around for decades: overfishing,
urban and agricultural runoff, toxic dumping. But the
lakes are becoming steadily less capable of dealing with
them, the report said.
That's because their "self-regulating mechanisms"
such as wetlands, tributaries and connecting channels
are falling apart, it said. Historically, they have served
as buffers between the lakes and damaging human activities.
Coastal wetlands, for example, have filtered out contaminants
such as phosphorus before they could reach the lakes.
But they are steadily disappearing; more than 90 per cent
of pre-settlement wetlands in the Lake Huron-Erie corridor
have been destroyed for development.
"What we need to do is allow the Great Lakes to
respond to those stresses in ways that ecosystems normally
do," said Don Scavia, director of the Michigan Sea
Grant programme and one of the report's lead authors.
"Most ecosystems are naturally resilient to change.
In the Great Lakes, we've eliminated or reduced that resilience."
Some locations have reached a "tipping point"
where the environment goes downhill quickly and unexpectedly
as nature's protective buffers fail, the report said.
Protecting and upgrading coastal wetlands and rivers
that flow into the lakes should be "at the heart"
of the restoration plan, said Buchsbaum, co-chairman of
a coalition that advised government agencies working on
the federal plan.
"This report suggests you can solve many of these
problems at the same time if you focus on the buffering
capacity of the Great Lakes," he said.
Source: China Daily